丢失多个数据文件,实现整个数据库的恢复

1. OS备份方案
OS备份归档模式下损坏(丢失)多个数据文件,进行整个数据库的恢复

(1) 连接数据库,创建测试表并插入记录

SQL> connect internal/password as sysdba;
Connected.

SQL> create table test(a int);
Table created
SQL> insert into test values(1);
1 row inserted
SQL> commit;
Commit complete

(2) 备份数据库,备份除临时数据文件后的所数据文件
SQL> @hotbak.sql 或在DOS下 svrmgrl @hotbak.sql

(3) 继续在测试表中插入记录

SQL> insert into test values(2);
1 row inserted
SQL> commit;
Commit complete
SQL> select * from test;
                         A
---------------------------------------
                         1
                         2
SQL> alter system switch logfile;
System altered.
SQL> alter system switch logfile;
System altered.

(4) 关闭数据库,模拟丢失数据文件

SQL> shutdown immediate;
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down

C:\>del D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\SYSTEM01.DBF
C:\>del D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\INDX01.DBF
C:\>del D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\TOOLS01.DBF
C:\>del D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\RBS01.DBF
模拟媒体毁坏(这里删除多个数据文件)

(5) 启动数据库,检查错误

SQL> STARTUP
ORACLE instance started.
Total System Global Area  102020364 bytes
Fixed Size                    70924 bytes
Variable Size              85487616 bytes
Database Buffers           16384000 bytes
Redo Buffers                  77824 bytes
Database mounted.
ORA-01157: cannot identify/lock data file 1 - see DBWR trace file
ORA-01110: data file 1: 'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\SYSTEM01.DBF'

详细信息可以查看报警文件
ORA-1157 signalled during: ALTER DATABASE OPEN...
Thu May 08 09:39:36 2003
Errors in file D:\Oracle\admin\test\bdump\testDBW0.TRC:
ORA-01157: cannot identify/lock data file 1 - see DBWR trace file
ORA-01110: data file 1: 'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\SYSTEM01.DBF'
ORA-27041: unable to open file
OSD-04002: unable to open file
O/S-Error: (OS 2) 系统找不到指定的文件。

Thu May 08 09:39:36 2003
Errors in file D:\Oracle\admin\test\bdump\testDBW0.TRC:
ORA-01157: cannot identify/lock data file 2 - see DBWR trace file
ORA-01110: data file 2: 'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\RBS01.DBF'
ORA-27041: unable to open file
OSD-04002: unable to open file
O/S-Error: (OS 2) 系统找不到指定的文件。

Thu May 08 09:39:36 2003
Errors in file D:\Oracle\admin\test\bdump\testDBW0.TRC:
ORA-01157: cannot identify/lock data file 5 - see DBWR trace file
ORA-01110: data file 5: 'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\TOOLS01.DBF'
ORA-27041: unable to open file
OSD-04002: unable to open file
O/S-Error: (OS 2) 系统找不到指定的文件。

Thu May 08 09:39:36 2003
Errors in file D:\Oracle\admin\test\bdump\testDBW0.TRC:
ORA-01157: cannot identify/lock data file 6 - see DBWR trace file
ORA-01110: data file 6: 'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\INDX01.DBF'
ORA-27041: unable to open file
OSD-04002: unable to open file
O/S-Error: (OS 2) 系统找不到指定的文件。

通过查询v$recover_file可以看到

SQL> select * from v$recover_file;

     FILE# ONLINE  ERROR                 CHANGE# TIME
---------- ------- ------------------ ---------- -----------
         1 ONLINE  FILE NOT FOUND              0 
         2 ONLINE  FILE NOT FOUND              0 
         5 ONLINE  FILE NOT FOUND              0 
         6 ONLINE  FILE NOT FOUND              0
有四个数据文件需要恢复

(6) 拷贝备份回到原地点(restore),开始恢复数据库(recover)

restore过程:
C:\>copy D:\DATABAK\SYSTEM01.DBF D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\
C:\>copy D:\DATABAK\TEST\INDX01.DBF D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\
C:\>copy D:\DATABAK\TEST\TOOLS01.DBF D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\
C:\>copy D:\DATABAK\TEST\RBS01.DBF.DBF D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\

Recover过程:
SQL> recover database;
ORA-00279: change 1073849 generated at 05/08/2003 08:58:35 needed for thread 1
ORA-00289: suggestion : D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\ARCHIVE\TESTT001S00311.ARC
ORA-00280: change 1073849 for thread 1 is in sequence #311

Specify log: {=suggested | filename | AUTO | CANCEL}
auto
ORA-00279: change 1073856 generated at 05/08/2003 09:03:27 needed for thread 1
ORA-00289: suggestion : D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\ARCHIVE\TESTT001S00312.ARC
ORA-00280: change 1073856 for thread 1 is in sequence #312
ORA-00278: log file 'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\ARCHIVE\TESTT001S00311.ARC' no
longer needed for this recovery

ORA-00279: change 1073858 generated at 05/08/2003 09:11:43 needed for thread 1
ORA-00289: suggestion : D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\ARCHIVE\TESTT001S00313.ARC
ORA-00280: change 1073858 for thread 1 is in sequence #313
ORA-00278: log file 'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\ARCHIVE\TESTT001S00312.ARC' no
longer needed for this recovery

ORA-00279: change 1073870 generated at 05/08/2003 09:11:46 needed for thread 1
ORA-00289: suggestion : D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\ARCHIVE\TESTT001S00314.ARC
ORA-00280: change 1073870 for thread 1 is in sequence #314
ORA-00278: log file 'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\ARCHIVE\TESTT001S00313.ARC' no
longer needed for this recovery

Log applied.
Media recovery complete.

(7) 打开数据库,检查数据库的数据(完全恢复)

SQL> alter database open;
Database altered.
SQL> select * from test;
                         A
---------------------------------------
                         1
                         2

说明:
1、只要有备份与归档存在,就可以实现数据库的完全恢复(不丢失数据)
2、适合于丢失大量数据文件,或包含系统数据文件在内的数据库的恢复
3、恢复过程在mount下进行,如果恢复成功,再打开数据库,down机时间可能比较长一些。

2. RMAN备份方案
RMAN备份归档模式下损坏(丢失)多个数据文件,进行整个数据库的恢复
(1) 连接数据库,创建测试表并插入记录

SQL> connect internal/password as sysdba;
Connected.
SQL> create table test(a int);
Table created
SQL> insert into test values(1);
1 row inserted
SQL> commit;
Commit complete

(2) 备份数据库

DOS下 C:>\ rman cmdfile=bakup.rcv msglog=backup.log;

以下是backup.log内容。
Recovery Manager: Release 8.1.6.0.0 - Production
RMAN> ##connect database
2> connect rcvcat rman/rman@back;
3> connect target internal/virpure;
4> 
5> #start backup database
6> run{
7> allocate channel c1 type disk;
8> backup full tag 'dbfull' format 'd:\backup\full%u_%s_%p' database
9> include current controlfile;
10> sql 'alter system archive log current';
11> release channel c1;
12> }
13> #end
14> 

RMAN-06008: connected to recovery catalog database
RMAN-06005: connected to target database: TEST (DBID=1788174720)
RMAN-03022: compiling command: allocate
RMAN-03023: executing command: allocate
RMAN-08030: allocated channel: c1
RMAN-08500: channel c1: sid=15 devtype=DISK
RMAN-03022: compiling command: backup
RMAN-03023: executing command: backup
RMAN-08008: channel c1: starting full datafile backupset
RMAN-08502: set_count=4 set_stamp=494074368 creation_time=15-MAY-03
RMAN-08010: channel c1: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
RMAN-08522: input datafile fno=00002 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\RBS01.DBF
RMAN-08522: input datafile fno=00001 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\SYSTEM01.DBF
RMAN-08011: including current controlfile in backupset
RMAN-08522: input datafile fno=00005 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\TOOLS01.DBF
RMAN-08522: input datafile fno=00004 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\TEMP01.DBF
RMAN-08522: input datafile fno=00006 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\INDX01.DBF
RMAN-08522: input datafile fno=00003 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\USER01.DBF
RMAN-08013: channel c1: piece 1 created
RMAN-08503: piece handle=D:\BACKUP\FULL04EN5UG0_4_1 comment=NONE
RMAN-08525: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:01:16
RMAN-03023: executing command: partial resync
RMAN-08003: starting partial resync of recovery catalog
RMAN-08005: partial resync complete
RMAN-03022: compiling command: sql
RMAN-06162: sql statement: alter system archive log current
RMAN-03023: executing command: sql
RMAN-03022: compiling command: release
RMAN-03023: executing command: release
RMAN-08031: released channel: c1
Recovery Manager complete.
到这里表示备份成功。

(3) 继续在测试表中插入记录

SQL> insert into test values(2);
1 row inserted
SQL> commit;
Commit complete
SQL> select * from test;
                         A
---------------------------------------
                         1
                         2
SQL> alter system switch logfile;
System altered.
SQL> alter system switch logfile;
System altered.

(4) 关闭数据库,模拟丢失数据文件

SQL> shutdown immediate;
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down
C:\>del D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\SYSTEM01.DBF
C:\>del D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\INDX01.DBF
C:\>del D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\TOOLS01.DBF
C:\>del D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\RBS01.DBF

(5) 启动数据库,检查错误

SQL> STARTUP
ORACLE instance started.
Total System Global Area  102020364 bytes
Fixed Size                    70924 bytes
Variable Size              85487616 bytes
Database Buffers           16384000 bytes
Redo Buffers                  77824 bytes
Database mounted.
ORA-01157: cannot identify/lock data file 1 - see DBWR trace file
ORA-01110: data file 1: 'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\SYSTEM01.DBF'

查询v$recover_file
SQL> select * from v$recover_file;

     FILE# ONLINE  ERROR                 CHANGE# TIME
---------- ------- ------------------ ---------- -----------
         1 ONLINE  FILE NOT FOUND              0 
         2 ONLINE  FILE NOT FOUND              0 
         5 ONLINE  FILE NOT FOUND              0 
         6 ONLINE  FILE NOT FOUND              0
可以知道有四个数据文件需要恢复

(6) 利用RMAN进行恢复

C:\>rman
Recovery Manager: Release 8.1.6.0.0 - Production
RMAN> connect rcvcat rman/rman@back
RMAN-06008: connected to recovery catalog database
RMAN> connect target internal/virpure
RMAN-06005: connected to target database: TEST (DBID=1788174720)
RMAN> run{
2> allocate channel c1 type disk;
3> restore database;
4> recover database;
5> sql 'alter database open';
6> release channel c1;
7> }

RMAN-03022: compiling command: allocate
RMAN-03023: executing command: allocate
RMAN-08030: allocated channel: c1
RMAN-08500: channel c1: sid=17 devtype=DISK
RMAN-03022: compiling command: restore
RMAN-03025: performing implicit partial resync of recovery catalog
RMAN-03023: executing command: partial resync
RMAN-08003: starting partial resync of recovery catalog
RMAN-08005: partial resync complete
RMAN-03022: compiling command: IRESTORE
RMAN-03023: executing command: IRESTORE
RMAN-08016: channel c1: starting datafile backupset restore
RMAN-08502: set_count=4 set_stamp=494074368 creation_time=15-MAY-03
RMAN-08089: channel c1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
RMAN-08523: restoring datafile 00001 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\SYSTEM01.DBF
RMAN-08523: restoring datafile 00002 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\RBS01.DBF
RMAN-08523: restoring datafile 00003 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\USER01.DBF
RMAN-08523: restoring datafile 00004 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\TEMP01.DBF
RMAN-08523: restoring datafile 00005 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\TOOLS01.DBF
RMAN-08523: restoring datafile 00006 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\INDX01.DBF
RMAN-08023: channel c1: restored backup piece 1
RMAN-08511: piece handle=D:\BACKUP\FULL04EN5UG0_4_1 tag=DBFULL params=NULL
RMAN-08024: channel c1: restore complete
RMAN-03023: executing command: partial resync
RMAN-08003: starting partial resync of recovery catalog
RMAN-08005: partial resync complete
RMAN-03022: compiling command: recover
RMAN-03022: compiling command: recover(1)
RMAN-03022: compiling command: recover(2)
RMAN-03022: compiling command: recover(3)
RMAN-03023: executing command: recover(3)
RMAN-08054: starting media recovery
RMAN-03022: compiling command: recover(4)
RMAN-06050: archivelog thread 1 sequence 327 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\ARCHIVE\TESTT001S00327.ARC
RMAN-06050: archivelog thread 1 sequence 328 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\ARCHIVE\TESTT001S00328.ARC
RMAN-06050: archivelog thread 1 sequence 329 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\ARCHIVE\TESTT001S00329.ARC
RMAN-06050: archivelog thread 1 sequence 330 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\ARCHIVE\TESTT001S00330.ARC
RMAN-03023: executing command: recover(4)
RMAN-08515: archivelog filename=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\ARCHIVE\TESTT001S00327.ARC thread=1 sequence=327
RMAN-08515: archivelog filename=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\TEST\ARCHIVE\TESTT001S00328.ARC thread=1 sequence=328
RMAN-08055: media recovery complete
RMAN-03022: compiling command: sql
RMAN-06162: sql statement: alter database open
RMAN-03023: executing command: sql
RMAN-03022: compiling command: release
RMAN-03023: executing command: release
RMAN-08031: released channel: c1
RMAN>

(7) 检查数据库的数据(完全恢复)

SQL> select * from test;
                         A
---------------------------------------
                         1
                         2

说明:
1、只要有备份与归档存在,RMAN也可以实现数据库的完全恢复(不丢失数据)
2、同OS备份数据库恢复,适合于丢失大量数据文件,或包含系统数据文件在内的数据库的恢复
3、目标数据库在mount下进行,如果恢复成功,再打开数据库。
4、RMAN的备份与恢复命令相对比较简单并可靠,建议有条件的话,都采用RMAN进行数据库的备份。

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